U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
If the employer requires all other applicants to undergo background checks before being offered a position, the employer may require members of religious or ethnic groups to undergo the same pre-employment investigations.
Of course, as with its other employment practices, the employer may not subject only particular religious or ethnic groups, such as Muslims or Arabs, to heightened security checks.
Some employers, such as defense contractors, may require a security clearance for certain jobs pursuant to a federal statute or Executive Order.
Clearance determinations must generally be processed and made without regard to race, religion, or national origin. However, security clearance determinations for positions subject to national security requirements under a federal statute or an Executive Order are not generally subject to review under the equal employment opportunity statutes.