U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Under the law, employers generally cannot ask disability-related questions or require medical examinations until after an applicant has been given a conditional job offer. This is because, in the past, this information was frequently used to exclude applicants with disabilities before their ability to perform a job was evaluated.
Employers are permitted pre-offer to ask limited questions about reasonable accommodation if they reasonably believe that the applicant may need accommodation because of an obvious or voluntarily disclosed disability, or where the applicant has disclosed a need for accommodation.
Also pre-offer, employers may ask if the applicant will need an accommodation to perform a specific job duty, and if the answer is yes, the employer may then ask what the accommodation would be.
The employer may not ask any questions about the nature or severity of the disability pre-offer. However, after making a conditional job offer, an employer may ask any disability-related question or require a medical examination as long as
all individuals selected for the same job are asked the same questions or made to take the same examination.