Selected Supreme Court Decisions 2000 - 2015
(Selected decisions 1971 - 1999)
- The Supreme Court holds in EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc., 135 S.Ct. 2028 (2015), in an 8-1 decision in favor of the EEOC, that it was a violation of
the law to fail to accommodate an applicant who wore a hijab.
- In Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. (UPS), 135 S.Ct. 1338 (2015), the Supreme Court holds that a pregnant worker wishing to show disparate treatment through
indirect evidence may do so through the application of the McDonnell Douglas framework. In reaching this holding, the court reverses summary judgment in favor of UPS.
- In Mach Mining v. EEOC, 135 S.Ct. 1645 (2015), the Supreme Court holds that "a court may review whether the EEOC satisfied its statutory obligation to attempt
conciliation before suit[, but] the scope of that review is narrow." Judicial review is limited to whether the EEOC has "inform[ed] the employer about the specific allegation" and whether the EEOC has "tr[ied] to engage the employer in some form of
- The Supreme Court holds in Vance v. Ball State University, 133 S.Ct. 2434 (2013), that an employer may be held vicariously liable for a supervisor's unlawful
harassment only when the employer has empowered that person to take tangible employment actions against the victim.
- The Supreme Court holds in University of Texas Southwestern Med. Ctr. v. Nassar, 133 S.Ct. 2517 (2013), that the "but for" causation standard applies to Title
VII's retaliation provision.
- The Supreme Court holds in Kloeckner v. Solis, 133 S.Ct. 596 (2012), that all federal employee "mixed-case" appeals from the MSPB involving both employment
discrimination and Civil Service Reform Act claims are appealable to the federal district court instead of the federal courts of appeals, even if the MSPB decided the case on procedural grounds.
- The Supreme Court holds in Thompson v. North American Stainless, L.P., 562 U.S. 170 (2011) that Title VII provides a cause of action to an employee who was
allegedly discharged in retaliation for his fiancée's protected activity against the same employer.
- In Staub v. Proctor Hospital, 562 U.S. 411 (2011), the Supreme Court holdsthat an employer can be liable, under certain circumstances, for the discriminatory
animus of a supervisor who did not make the ultimate employment decision. The court interpreted language in the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA) that is similar to language in Title VII.
- In Kasten v. Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics Corp., 131 S.Ct. 1325 (2011), the Supreme Court holds that the anti-retaliation provision of the Fair Labor
Standards Act covers oral as well as written complaints. (The same retaliation provision applies under the EPA.)
- In Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes, 131 S.Ct. 2541 (2011), the Supreme Court holds that a group of plaintiffs seeking injunctive and declaratory relief and back
pay, on behalf of a nationwide class of 1.5 million female employees, cannot pursue a class action under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(b)(2).
- The Supreme Court holds in Lewis v. City of Chicago, 560 U.S. 205 (2010), that an employee who does not challenge the adoption of an allegedly
discriminatory practice - "here, an employer's decision to exclude employment applicants who did not achieve a certain score on an examination - may assert a disparate impact claim in a timely charge challenging the employer's later
application of that practice." Thus, African-American firefighter applicants had cognizable disparate impact claims under Title VII each time the city hired from an eligibility list based on an allegedly discriminatory written exam.
- The Supreme Court holds in Crawford v. Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, TN, 555 U.S. 271 (2009), that the opposition clause of Title
VII's anti-retaliation provision protects individuals who provide information as part of an employer's investigation of alleged discrimination.
- In 14 Penn Plaza LLC v. Pyett, 556 U.S. 247 (2009), the Supreme Court holds that a collectively bargained mandatory arbitration agreement that covers claims of
employment discrimination is enforceable.
- In AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen, 556 U.S. 701 (2009),the Supreme Court holds that an employer does not violate the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) by paying
pension benefits pursuant to a bona fide seniority plan that provides less service credit for pregnancy leave taken before the enactment of the PDA than for other forms of short-term disability leave.
- In Gross v. FBL Financial Services, Inc., 557 U.S. 167 (2009), the Supreme Court holds that plaintiffs must always show that age was the "but for" cause of
discrimination to establish ADEA liability.
- In Ricci v. DeStefano, 557 U.S. 557 (2009) the Supreme Court holds that Title VII prohibits an employer from discarding the results of a promotion test that has
a racially disparate impact unless the employer can demonstrate a strong basis in evidence to believe that relying on the results would subject the employer to disparate-impact liability.
- In Federal Express Corp. v. Holowecki, 552 U.S. 389 (2008), the Supreme Court holdsthat a filing with the EEOC constitutes an ADEA charge if it meets the
charge-filing requirements of 29 CFR § 1626.6, which require it to: 1) be in writing, 2) include an allegation of discrimination, 3) name the charged respondent, and 4) be "reasonably construed as a request for the [EEOC] to take remedial action to
protect the employee's rights or otherwise settle a dispute between the employer and the employee."
- The Supreme Court holds in Gomez-Perez v. Potter, 553 U.S. 474 (2008), that Section 633(a) of the ADEA prohibits retaliation against federal employees who
complain about age discrimination.
- The Supreme Court holds in Meacham v. Knolls Atomic Power Lab, 554 U.S. 84 (2008) that an employer defending an ADEA disparate impact claim bears both the burden
of production and the burden of persuasion on the reasonable factors other than age (RFOA) defense.
- The Supreme Court holds in Kentucky Retirement Systems v. EEOC, 554 U.S. 135 (2008), that a disability retirement plan that discriminated on the basis of pension
eligibility did not violate the ADEA, even though pension eligibility was based on age, because the employer was not "actually motivated" by age.
- The Supreme Court in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. 550 U.S. 618 (2007) (superseded by the Lilly Ledbetter statute), holds that the period for
filing an EEOC charge challenging pay discrimination begins when the pay-setting decision is made and, therefore, that a Title VII charge ordinarily must be filed within 180/300 days of the time when that decision was originally made.
- The Supreme Court holds in Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White, 548 U.S. 53 (2006), that the anti-retaliation provision of Title VII (Section
704(a)) is not limited to discriminatory actions affecting a term, condition, or privilege of employment, and thus is broader than Title VII's core anti-discrimination provision (Section 703(a)).
- In Arbaugh v. Y&H Corp., 540 U.S. 500 (2006), the Supreme Court holds that the question of whether a defendant meets the 15employee requirement for employer
status under Title VII does not affect the district court's jurisdiction, but rather goes to the merits of the plaintiff's claims. The Supreme Court reverses the appeals court and further holds that that the defendant's argument with respect to the
number of employees was a defense to liability which could be waived if not timely raised in the trial court. The EEOC joins the amicus brief filed by the Solicitor General and the Supreme Court agreed with the government's position.
- The Supreme Court holds in Smith v. City of Jackson, Mississippi, 544 U.S. 228 (2005), that the ADEA authorizes recovery in disparate impact cases and permits
the employer defense that the challenged action was based on a "reasonable factor other than age."
- In Pennsylvania State Police v. Suders, 542 U.S. 129 (2004), the Supreme Court ruled that when a supervisor's "official act" precipitates an employee's
constructive discharge, the Faragher/Ellerth affirmative defense is not available to the employer. Employers can otherwise raise the defense if an employee alleges she was constructively discharged because of harassment. EEOC joined the
amicus brief filed by the Solicitor General.
- The Supreme Court holds in General Dynamics Land Systems, Inc. v. Cline , 540 U.S. 581 (2004), that the ADEA does not prevent an employer from favoring an older
employee over a relatively younger one.
- In Clackamas Gastroenterology Associates, P.C. v. Wells, 538 U.S. 440 (2003), the Supreme Court holds that the status of a particular individual as an "employee"
under the ADA should be based on the common law definition of "employee," which focuses on the extent to which the individual is subject to the employer's control.
- The Supreme Court holds in Desert Palace, Inc. v. Costa, 539 U.S. 90 (2003), that direct evidence of discrimination is not required for a plaintiff to receive a
mixed-motive jury instruction under Section 703(m) of Title VII.
- In Raytheon Co. v. Hernandez, 540 U.S. 581 (2003), the Court rules that, under the ADA, a neutral no-rehire policy is a legitimate, non-discriminatory reason for
refusing to rehire an employee who had a record of drug addiction.
- In Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, 534 U.S. 184 (2002) (superseded by the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA)), the
Supreme Court rules that a person is substantially limited in a major life activity, within the meaning of the ADA, if s/he has "an impairment that prevents or significantly restricts the individual from doing activities that are of central
importance to most people's daily lives."
- The Supreme Court holds in EEOC v. Waffle House, 534 U.S. 279 (2002), that an agreement to arbitrate between an employee and employer does not bar the EEOC from
pursuing victim-specific relief on behalf of an employee who files a timely charge of discrimination.
- In Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc. v. NLRB, 535 U.S. 137 (2002), the Court rules that the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 forecloses the National
Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from making a back pay award to an undocumented worker under the National Labor Relations Act, where the worker had never been legally authorized to work in the United States. The EEOC modeled its approach to Title VII
back pay for workers without documentation on the NLRB's approach.
- Edelman v. Lynchburg College, 535,U.S. 106 (2002), the Court holds that the EEOC's relation-back rule, 29 C.F.R. § 1601.12(b), is valid. This rule permits an
otherwise timely-filed charge to be verified after the expiration of the filing period.
- US Airways, Inc. v. Barnett, 535 U.S. 391 (2002), held that an employer's showing that a requested accommodation conflicts with seniority rules is ordinarily
sufficient to demonstrate, as a matter of law, that an accommodation is not "reasonable" under the ADA.
- The Court found in Chevron U.S.A., Inc., v. Echazabal, 536 U.S. 73(2002), that the EEOC's ADA regulation interpreting the statute to give employers an affirmative
defense based on direct threat to self.
- In National R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, 536 U.S. 101 (2002), the Court ruled that an employer may be liable for all acts contributing to a hostile work
environment as long as one of the contributing acts occurred within the applicable 180/300-day filing period.
- The Supreme Court holds in Board of Trustees of University of Alabama v. Garrett, 531 U.S. 356 (2001) that state employees do not have the right to sue their
employers for violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). State employees may still file disability discrimination complaints with the Department of Justice (DOJ) or the EEOC, which can sue states on their behalf.
- The Supreme Court holds in Kimel v. Florida Bd. of Regents, 528 U.S. 62 (2000), that older workers cannot sue state agencies for damages under the Age
Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA).